Ohio

Rabbi in Ohio U. controversy leads group that denies there’s an occupation

9/16/14

One of the leading figures in the controversy over Ohio University Senate president Megan Marzec’s blood-bucket challenge for Gaza is Rabbi Danielle Leshaw, the executive director of the Hillel on campus. Leshaw wrote that Marzec’s dramatic statement for Gaza and in support of BDS made Jewish students on campus feel “unsafe” and she should step down.

I saw Leshaw at J Street last year and was impressed by her speech criticizing Birthright, saying Jewish students need to see the occupation in all its gory. She teaches her own children about the occupation, in the hope that “damn separation wall” will come down.

I don’t want my kids… [b]elieving that the land of Israel is our sole birthright and nobody else has ever laid claim to these sacred spaces. I want my kids to grow up believing that they can dismantle that damn separation wall.

During the recent Gaza slaughter she wrote:

Will we ever end this occupation? It all feels hopeless right now.

But Leshaw is the administrator of a pro-Israel group on campus called Bobcats for Israel, four members of which were arrested last week during a demonstration against Megan Marzec at the Senate. Leshaw tweeted often in solidarity with the arrested students. During their action, she did so in rah-rah terms: “The filibuster has begun. And it’s not going to stop.” Later from the courthouse, as she helped with their defense.

 

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Now look at the logo of Bobcats for Israel. You will see there is no occupation: the “Israel” these students are for includes Gaza and the West Bank and the Golan Heights. And don’t forget East Jerusalem. Where do they draw the line? At the Jordan. If you think this is just a symbol– it’s a very conscious symbol of a rightwing settler Israel. That map is painful for Palestinians, because it removes Palestine entirely. Some would call that map racist.

It’s hard to see how Leshaw can reconcile her opposition to the occupation with her leadership of a group that denies it exists.

Leshaw is getting support to take on Marzec from the Jewish establishment: Eric Fingerhut, the national head of Hillel, has celebrated her. He and Leshaw represent the rigid orthodoxy that the dissident Jewish group Open Hillel is taking on in its conference next month– which will feature appearances by Rebecca Vilkomerson of JVP, Sa’ed Atshan, Rashid Khalidi, Peter Beinart, David Harris-Gershon, Shaul Magid and Judith Butler. Several of the speakers support BDS. They’ll have a real conversation about the issue. And Open Hillel’s invitation to Students for Justice in Palestine to attend the conference means it doesn’t want red lines on what it can and can’t talk about. I bet that everyone at the Open Hillel conference would condemn the Bobcats for Israel symbol.

Leshaw has been challenged in her claim to represent Jewish student opinion. One former student blasted Leshaw for “the audacity to attempt to speak for all Jews on campus” and in support of ethnic cleansing. Another alum, educator Matthew Farmer wrote, “In her position as a leader, I worry @RabbiDanielle’s letter to @ThePost [saying Marzec made Jews feel "unsafe"] marginalizes and silences Jewish students who support Megan or BDS.”

Leshaw wrote later on twitter: “I speak for the majority of J. students at OU b/c that’s part of my job description. Sorry if that bothers you.” I bet a majority of Jewish students at OU are opposed to the occupation, and to the Israel group’s denial of it.

Um, Here's a Map That Shows Where Americans Use 'Um' vs. 'Uh'

9/15/14
Image
Quartz

Every language has filler words that speakers use in nervous moments or to buy time while thinking. Two of the most common of these in English are “uh” and “um.” They might seem interchangeable, but data show that their usage breaks down across surprising geographic lines. Hmm.

The map above shows a preliminary attempt to use the tremendous amount of linguistic data being produced on the web to understand how language works. Jack Grieve, a forensic linguist at Aston University in the U.K., has been looking through 6 billion words collected from Twitter. Following a discussion with fellow linguist Mark Lieberman—a prolific blogger who has long been interested in the “um”/”uh” divide—Grieve decided to look through his collection of tweets to see how the two words compared. They started their exploration with data from America.

If a county on the map is bright blue or bright pink, its tweets show a clear tendency toward “um” or “uh,” respectively. The purplish colors in between mean that a county’s results leaned one way, but weren’t clear representations of a regional trend.

To uncover the geography of filler words, Grieve ran through the Twitter corpus to find how often a given American county uses “um” over “uh” and vice versa. After that, he used an algorithm known as “hot-spot testing” to smooth out the results and make them more meaningful.

The smoothed-out version has a lot to say. The regional breakdown is clear, and it doesn’t look much like other maps that try to show where some phenomenon or another is happening in the United States. Grieve said the use of “um” looks to follow the elusive “Midland dialect,” which linguists have suspected follows the Ohio River southwest from central Pennsylvania. That accounts for most of the blue that sweeps from West Virginia all the way to Arizona. Grieve said the “uh” and “um” analysis is the first time his research has shown clear evidence of the Midland dialect.

The map also shows that usage on the west coast is harder to pin down. The purplish color leans toward “um” in most of California, aside from the Bay Area, but there is no clear winner west of Arizona.

Hot-spot testing explained

Hot-spot testing has a variety of applications in statistics, but the goal is to put individual data points in geographical context to uncover broader tendencies. A retailer might be interested, for example, in knowing whether a new product is selling better in certain parts of the country. Let’s say it’s selling reasonably well at a location surrounded by dozens of stores where almost nobody is buying it. By comparing this store to its neighbors, a hot-spot test can identify this broader region as one where the retailer’s strategy is not working.

The same technique is used to reveal the regional scope of spoken dialects: Grieve compared each county’s “um”/”uh” split to those of several nearby geographical areas. “We do this because dialect data is generally very messy, so this is a way of extracting the underlying regional signal,” Grieve said in an email. To test the algorithm’s validity, he tried hot-spot testing on sets of random data. These tests revealed no trends whatsoever, he said.

This is what the data look like before hot-spot testing, with a percentage of “um” versus “uh” for each county:

More, uh, possibilities

Geography is not the only possible answer to the “um” versus “uh” mystery. Earlier research by Lieberman suggests that women use “um” more often than men. Also, using these in writing is much different than using them in, uh, person. People on Twitter, for example, often use it to express awkwardness or condescension.

Here’s an “um” that pokes fun at Apple executives, for example:

And an “uh” that does the same for the Obama administration’s view on its authorization to use military force against terrorists:

Nevertheless, the tone of Twitter prose is informal, meaning colloquialism and linguistic quirks come through. And even if people use “um” and “uh” for snark, they still have to choose one over the other. Grieve is looking to mine the Twitterverse for ever more linguistic insights. We’ll, erm, keep you updated as new data come out.

This post originally appeared on Quartz, an Atlantic partner site.

More from Quartz:

When It Comes to a China Growth Slowdown, Bad News Is Actually Good News

Atheism Has Finally Found Its Spiritual Leader

Google’s New Phones Are Designed to Ensure It Doesn’t Lose India Like It Did China








Um, Here's a Map That Shows Where Americans Use 'Um' vs. 'Uh'

9/15/14
Image
Quartz

Every language has filler words that speakers use in nervous moments or to buy time while thinking. Two of the most common of these in English are “uh” and “um.” They might seem interchangeable, but data show that their usage breaks down across surprising geographic lines. Hmm.

The map above shows a preliminary attempt to use the tremendous amount of linguistic data being produced on the web to understand how language works. Jack Grieve, a forensic linguist at Aston University in the U.K., has been looking through 6 billion words collected from Twitter. Following a discussion with fellow linguist Mark Lieberman—a prolific blogger who has long been interested in the “um”/”uh” divide—Grieve decided to look through his collection of tweets to see how the two words compared. They started their exploration with data from America.

If a county on the map is bright blue or bright pink, its tweets show a clear tendency toward “um” or “uh,” respectively. The purplish colors in between mean that a county’s results leaned one way, but weren’t clear representations of a regional trend.

To uncover the geography of filler words, Grieve ran through the Twitter corpus to find how often a given American county uses “um” over “uh” and vice versa. After that, he used an algorithm known as “hot-spot testing” to smooth out the results and make them more meaningful.

The smoothed-out version has a lot to say. The regional breakdown is clear, and it doesn’t look much like other maps that try to show where some phenomenon or another is happening in the United States. Grieve said the use of “um” looks to follow the elusive “Midland dialect,” which linguists have suspected follows the Ohio River southwest from central Pennsylvania. That accounts for most of the blue that sweeps from West Virginia all the way to Arizona. Grieve said the “uh” and “um” analysis is the first time his research has shown clear evidence of the Midland dialect.

The map also shows that usage on the west coast is harder to pin down. The purplish color leans toward “um” in most of California, aside from the Bay Area, but there is no clear winner west of Arizona.

Hot-spot testing explained

Hot-spot testing has a variety of applications in statistics, but the goal is to put individual data points in geographical context to uncover broader tendencies. A retailer might be interested, for example, in knowing whether a new product is selling better in certain parts of the country. Let’s say it’s selling reasonably well at a location surrounded by dozens of stores where almost nobody is buying it. By comparing this store to its neighbors, a hot-spot test can identify this broader region as one where the retailer’s strategy is not working.

The same technique is used to reveal the regional scope of spoken dialects: Grieve compared each county’s “um”/”uh” split to those of several nearby geographical areas. “We do this because dialect data is generally very messy, so this is a way of extracting the underlying regional signal,” Grieve said in an email. To test the algorithm’s validity, he tried hot-spot testing on sets of random data. These tests revealed no trends whatsoever, he said.

This is what the data look like before hot-spot testing, with a percentage of “um” versus “uh” for each county:

More, uh, possibilities

Geography is not the only possible answer to the “um” versus “uh” mystery. Earlier research by Lieberman suggests that women use “um” more often than men. Also, using these in writing is much different than using them in, uh, person. People on Twitter, for example, often use it to express awkwardness or condescension.

Here’s an “um” that pokes fun at Apple executives, for example:

And an “uh” that does the same for the Obama administration’s view on its authorization to use military force against terrorists:

Nevertheless, the tone of Twitter prose is informal, meaning colloquialism and linguistic quirks come through. And even if people use “um” and “uh” for snark, they still have to choose one over the other. Grieve is looking to mine the Twitterverse for ever more linguistic insights. We’ll, erm, keep you updated as new data come out.

This post originally appeared on Quartz, an Atlantic partner site.

More from Quartz:

When It Comes to a China Growth Slowdown, Bad News Is Actually Good News

Atheism Has Finally Found Its Spiritual Leader

Google’s New Phones Are Designed to Ensure It Doesn’t Lose India Like It Did China








Ohio University filibuster: harangue or free speech?

9/13/14

Reaching Wednesday’s Ohio University Student Senate meeting minutes before the scheduled 7:15 start (after a 90-min drive stretched to three hours by traffic), I saw a packed room with a speech already in progress.  As I edged forward, I tripped on a step hidden by the crush of standing onlookers, and landed–Plunk!–on the floor.

A kind student checked that I was okay, and, fearing I’d be embarrassed (as I inwardly mocked myself for being oblivious to essentials like footing) assured me, “Don’t worry, no one noticed because the speaker’s Out-of-Order.”  The woman talking turned out to be Bobcats for Israel President Becky Sebo, who’d apparently interrupted as soon as Senate President Megan Marzec called the meeting to order, cutting off her first announcement. Marzec had started to condemn the threats against “Rabbi Danielle,” the very OU Hillel Executice Director who helped ignite a furor against Marzec by demanding that she resign because of her “Blood-Bucket Challenge.”

But, at that moment—I learned later–, this very Rabbi Danielle Leshaw tweeted in quick succession: “Meeting in order. But students are speaking out. Not in turn”; “Bobcats for Israel leader @BeckySebo calls for Megan’s resignation”; and–seeming to rejoice in a good plan well-executed– “The filibuster has begun. And it’s not going to stop.”

I alternated between taking photos and notes about the stand-off, in which much happened at once, so I apologize if I mangle people’s names or the order of events.  Students videoed throughout, but I’ve yet to find an entire recording; The Post yesterday published a longer excerpt than before, “Video: Student Senate Full”–an absurd title for 12 minutes of clips from a roughly 90-minute meeting.

Sebo read from a lengthy script, but most disturbing was how she seemed to try to make Marzec feel guilty: “Megan, I even stood up for you….That’s right, the President of Bobcats for Israel who called for your resignation stood up for you, because I care about your safety on this campus.”  These too-personal jabs replicate Rabbi Leshaw’s reproaches: “And so when I tell people that I think you’re wonderful, and smart, and that you likely had no idea what your video would spur, they’re surprised, because how could you possibly do such a thing if you have a relationship with the campus rabbi?….if you’ve got university partners that care about you?”

As Sebo continued, I couldn’t hear all the words, but the gist was that, after vowing not to stop until Marzec resigned, Sebo quoted many condemnations of the academic boycott of Israel, which Marzec had endorsed in making her blood bucket action in the first place. Marzec and others asked her to abide by the rules and allow the Student Speakout meeting to proceed, but Sebo simply droned on without seeming to hear.  Senators resorted to a “mic check” to reclaim the meeting, calling out lines like, “Free exchange of ideas,” “Others have the right to speak.” But Sebo’s monologue drowned out discussion. Group replies thundered. Clapping and stomping echoed.

Sometime in the hubbub, a big man in a blue shirt and tie joined Sebo in strolling around the pit reading. I later learned that he read his lines directly at Megan Marzec, towering over her in a way others saw as threatening. By that time I had moved across the room to photograph the audience, to a spot where I could no longer see Marzec. However I snapped a photo of some observers lining up to shield Marzec.

IMG_1355Marzec and others walked over to Sebo, asking her to let others speak. Sebo ignored them.  Soon more Bobcats for Israel strolled about and read too. I scrudged together courage to step on to the floor to take pictures that had a better chance of being in focus (my camera’s slow). Marzec stood on her desk to speak over the Israel-defenders’ clamor. A woman nearby, whom I later guessed to be Dean of Students Jenny Hall-Jones, encouraged her: “Go on, I know you can do this.” That gesture was heartening, for– after Leshaw proclaimed that Marzec “isn’t qualified” to be President and should resign– Hall-Jones had tweeted fawning approval of Leshaw: “Thankful for the grace strength, leadership and support of @RabbiDanielle We are so lucky to have her as a member of our #community.”

Marzec took a vote on whether to call the police. The answer: “Yes.”  Eventually the police arrived.  A man identified by The Athens News as OU Police Chief Andrew Powers (3:45) warned Sebo and the man in the blue shirt that they had two minutes to sit down or be arrested.   Sebo carried on without appearing to hear, I thought, but the video clip has cries of “Two minutes?!” Two minutes passed: Sebo was arrested and led out.  But the disruption continued.

IMG_1367On cue, another Bobcat for Israel in a blue striped golf shirt hopped up to rant from Sebo’s script (above).  Eventually, a bystander asked the big man in the blue shirt and tie why he was still walking around, yet hadn’t been willing to be arrested with Sebo.  No reply.  A tall man in a white shirt (left, above) joined the display.

About then, the video reveals something I hadn’t heard: after Marzec deplored “anti-Arab racism” she exclaimed, “As someone who’s been raped on this campus, I know what it feels like to feel you are in danger.”

IMG_1362 (1)Three more arrests: first, taller white shirt; then blue golf, and last, green T-, all escorted out by police. But the big man in the blue shirt avoided arrest by fading away at the right moments.  Once the four disrupters were gone, about 20 supporters stood in unison and filed out.

Megan Marzec picked up right where she’d left off: condemning the threats against Rabbi Danielle Leshaw. Then she proclaimed, “I will never apologize for standing with the people of Palestine.  And I will never represent fascists.”

The Student Speakout was at last free: I’ve parphrased a few comments, many not included in the video.

The first speaker (I think he was called Rabbi Davis) expressed “appreciation to Megan Marzec for her video,” for the questions Megan raised give us a “tremendous opportunity” to find answers that could be a source of pride as all work together for a better future. But, he added, “I’d be the first to admit, though, that I don’t know how to do this.”  Rev. Evan Young drew cheers by announcing an Interfaith Peace Walk for the following night.

University Life Commissioner Charlotte Bassam-Bowles (6:00) talked with an English accent of how “my ability to study here relies on the U.S. government,” which can revoke her visa at any time.  She read a letter by other students from abroad “who fear speaking up” because they face not only being deported, but being “sent straight to prison when they return to Palestine.”  She pointed to the recent slurs at OU against Palestinians and Arabs as “animals.”

The next speaker reminded us that the charge that critics of Israel are “anti-Semitic” is bogus, for “Semites” are all who speak a Semitic language, including Palestinians. Another told us that we all need to speak up because “Silence means siding with oppressors, colonizers”; that President of OU Roderick J. McDavis was “wrong”: “civility” is speaking “truth when violence is done,” rather than quashing dialog. Conclusion: “I want President McDavis to apologize to Megan.”  For his part, President McDavis issued a new “statement on student efforts to promote healing; peaceful dialogue” yesterday: “We [at OU] remain focused on providing a learning environment that respects and encourages free speech, thoughtful discussion of important issues, and the opinions of others. We do not support an environment in which students – and even some faculty and staff – feel uncomfortable expressing their ideas and viewpoints.”

The man in the plaid shirt said that the issue is “power”; he asked Jolana Ozara, the moderator of the session, how long she was able to stay in a Board of Trustees meeting before she was “dragged out.” Ozara replied, “45 seconds, tops.” The man compared that lightning removal with the 38 whole minutes before “the first speaker was arrested tonight.” He stood up for equality of voice: “We all have a right to speak in this campus.”  Another volunteered that, “I feel sorry for every Jew who had their voice stolen” and were “labeled as bullies by 5 or 6 people” because all Jews do not support Israel’s acts.

A man who identified himself as both “Jewish and Israeli” but had an American accent chimed in that he was glad to hear this, because “I don’t want it to become ‘He said, She said.” He halted: “Sorry, I become emotional about this… as an Israeli I feel I have to defend my country,” assuring us that “if you go to Israel…they are open to debate.”  He interrupted himself to chide Professor Louis-Georges Schwartz: “Okay, you, Sir, in the green, I don’t know what your deal is….I’m trying to promote peace; your laughter isn’t doing anything.”  Someone interjected, “You have support, trust me,” and the audience clapped.  (Schwartz tells me today, “If I was making a face when that guy spoke, I had been during the whole Speakout because I was upset about the Bobcat violence in the Senate chamber and towards a friend who had been threatened.”) The Israeli continued, “I don’t know if you’ve ever even been to Israel.  I have. My cousin’s best friends are Arab Israelis…I guarantee most of you don’t know the personal ideas of everyone in Israel or Gaza or Palestine….I feel that education is of the biggest importance, because a lot of people aren’t educated.” Then he concluded with hasbara: that no one ever talks about Hamas or how many greenhouses Israel left Gaza, which Palestinians destroyed. The many murmurs told me that the old lines aren’t working: people in that room know the facts.

Sami Eddauod, from Palestine Solidarity Group of Columbus, answered him: “This is way bigger than just Hamas…This is an Occupation, a systematic oppression….”  Schwartz was then called on: he introduced himself as a Film scholar studying the destruction of infrastructure, with siblings who live in Israel, and he has a very different understanding of the situation from what the Israeli speaker described. He pointed out “that representation is a formal political function, not that someone who represents you has the same opinion as you….Impeaching someone for a difference of opinion is proceduralism which contradicts the core vision of democracy.”  A final speaker asserted that the body was “stupid” to “call police.” Now those arrested would “look like martyrs.”

Still, I was shocked by the portrayal of the self-righteous students who’d commandeered what’s supposed to be a democratic meeting as the muzzled victims of censorship. That portrayal started with tweets from Rabbi Leshaw: “Somebody just shouted Go Home Nazis.”  Later, Leshaw repeated that assertion: “Tonight, Jewish students were called Nazis and fascists. @ohiou #BDS fail @OUSenate.” She also said that “Megan called them fascists. They’re not.” I have to say that I didn’t notice Marzec or anyone else call the Bobcats for Israel names. And it’s not as if these supposed victims don’t have friends on the inside: “Lawyers calling from all over Ohio offering to represent our students. More #love,” Leshaw reported.

Meanwhile, some students countered her claims in Letters to the Editor and on Twitter (just go to Leshaw’s feed) before and after the meeting.  Worn-out tropes fail, as the old order changeth.

Ohio student leader who dropped bucket of blood for Gaza receives vicious death threats

9/11/14

Here’s an important story we’ve been following from Athens, Ohio: the student senate president at Ohio University dumped a bucket of fake blood over her head to commemorate the massacre victims in Gaza and supported boycott and divestment from Israel. There has been a giant backlash against Megan Marzec for creating that video (a takeoff on the ice-bucket challenge trend to raise money to fight ALS); and last night four angry Israel supporters were arrested at a student senate meeting for disruption and refusing the order to stop speaking. One of those students approached Marzec in what observers said was a physically-threatening manner.

In our first post on this story, we mentioned death threats against Marzec. Well thanks to Louis-Georges Schwartz, a professor of film studies at the school, here are two of them. Both use obscene language and say that Marzec will be killed– by terrorists or Islamists.

First, this anonymous email was sent to Marzec two days ago, saying that her life is over.

10614355_10152702028076407_632881025338015840_n (1)

And second, here is a thoroughly-repellent letter that was sent last week to the president of the university, Roderick McDavis, and to others; Louis Schwartz also received a copy of it and posted it on Facebook with the aim of protecting Marzec. McDavis is black. The letter contains a threat to Marzec. The author of the threat is Debra Halborn, a writer.

 

Deborah Halborn

Debra Halborn

The threat is not actually the worst of the threats directed at Marzec. She has received multiple death threats, Schwartz told us.

Halborn, the self described “”badass JEW LADY” who wrote President McDavis,  is a storyteller for children. Her website is called, The Starcat Cluster.

The threatening nature of Halborn’s text prompted the University to contact local security and law enforcement. Schwartz posted an image of Halborn’s threat on his Facebook page, and Halborn wrote another email (below), to OU President McDavis and his wife, including a graphic from her Facebook page and an invitation to share the graphic “for those who strive to forge a better world.”

 

Halborn apology

Halborn Letter to President Davis

Halborn then wrote an email to Schwartz. The subject line on the email was “Chain of events: BDS matter and Atonement” and referenced her email to Davis and his wife as “an apology”. Perhaps it is her offer to share her artwork that she sees as her atonement. And Halborn describes her first communication as the “BDS letter.” Here is the content of the email with a name removed ——. The words in brackets [] were written by Halborn.

Louis:

Yesterday, I presented my apology to Dr. McDavis [attached], and copied Miss—–; the contents of which, she deemed not to “share” with you as she did my [regretfully written] BDS letter, perhaps because it is not as controversial, as inflammatory; so I am sharing my Apology with you, today – for you also chose to pour gasoline on a most delicate and hurtful matter by spreading this issue on your Facebook page – rather than to email me on your own, to telephone me on your own, or write to me on your own, and discuss your feelings.

As a Jewish man, you know that Erev Yom Kippur  – The Day of Atonement, is nigh; and on Kol Nidre, the Holiest of Holy Days, I will stand before G-d, declare to Him my terrible act, and await His Judgement and His Forgiveness.

Do you remember the Aveinu Malkaynu, Louis? Our prayer of Atonement:

Avienu Malkaynu, Our Father our King, We stand before you – Avienu Malkaynu, We have sinned before Thee . . .we ask Thy divine Forgiveness . . .

L’Shanah Tovah Tikatayvu : A Happy New Year to you, Louis. May G-d grant you a Good Year.

Shalom

Debra Halborn

The case suggests that the battle over Israel and Palestine is coming to American shores, as well it should. Though the tactics are extremely concerning.

Israeli gov’t promotes ‘free degree’ for young American Jews who immigrate to Israel

9/11/14

The Israeli government has a new advertising campaign for young American Jews to move to Israel. Please watch the cringe-worthy video at the link (the subliminal message is that dorky Jewish guys can find girlfriends over there). The Israeli government promotion says that young Jews can both move to Israel and get “best of all a free degree on Uncle Shmuel’s tab” if they explore certain unnamed “exciting educational opportunities for new olim [immigrants] to Israel.” Tel Aviv University and “Uncle Shmuel” are featured in the video.

On a related note, Becky Sebo is one of those arrested last night at the student senate meeting at Ohio University when she kept speaking after she was warned she was disrupting the meeting. Sebo is a young dancer and leader of Bobcats for Israel, the pro-Israel group at the school.

Athens Ohio Today says Sebo is 22 and from Pepper Pike, which is a suburb of Cleveland. Haaretz, which quoted Sebo yesterday, said she “is from Cleveland.”

Sebo tweeted the Haaretz piece:

So honored to be on the front page of Haaretz supporting my country, ISRAEL http://t.co/go3pBhqwwL

— Becky Sebo (@BeckySebo) September 10, 2014

Israel supporters say that the charge of dual loyalty is a canard, but Sebo’s assertion, and the Israeli government promotion, both blur national borders, surely because Zionism entails that necessity: American Jews must support Israel so that the U.S. government will support Israel blindly.

Thanks to Mark Peterson.

Update: I said when I first published this post that the Israeli gov’t was promising American support for college educations, thereby confusing Uncle Shmuel with Uncle Sam. The ad would seem to promise Israeli government support.

 

Missouri Inmate Earl Ringo Jr. Executed Despite Appeals, Death Marks State’s Eighth Execution In 2014

9/10/14

Missouri inmate Earl Ringo Jr. was put to death early Wednesday at the state penitentiary in Bonne Terre despite several last-minute appeals to overturn his death sentence, including a claim that the prison was using a controversial sedative drug linked to three recent botched executions in Ohio, Oklahoma and Arizona.